한국사티어가족상담교육원

 
작성일 : 08-12-16 09:48
Application of Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy in Korea
 글쓴이 : kimfamil
조회 : 3,278  
Application of Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy in Korea

Young Ae Kim, Ph.D.

Korea Satir Institute, Director

I. Introduction
            Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy has been welcomed enthusiastically in Korea since the training program was first introduced approximately five years ago. The enthusiasm arises from the model's clarity, inclusiveness, integration and its transformational power.[1]  For those who have learned about Stair’s humanitarian approaches and have experienced the the power of the Model, it seems only natural that STST would hold universal appeal. Because,  culture influences its member’s worldview and healing methodology, it is easy to assume that therapeutic effectiveness lies in sharing the similar worldview with the recipients.[2] Thus, it is necessary to review the worldview of the STST and Korean to enhance the effectiveness of the healing.

Modern healing methodology, either psychotherapy or family therapy, emerged from Western society is based on dualistic worldview.  It divides everything into hierarchical order such as God/ human being, spirituality/body, reason/emotion, human/nature, etc., In this perspective, one is better than the other.  Thus people who have power is good and know the right way.  This worldview also influences the therapy in a way that therapist has the power to name the problem and know the way to treat the problem. However, Satir strongly disagreed with this worldview and was adamant in her stance on equal human value. Satir always regarded every person as an authentic being, equipped with resources to fully realize himself or herself sharing same life force. Thus, therapy is not fix the other person, but help to light the other person’s life force[3]

Korean’s archaic worldview is “Han” which means holistic, systemic, complementary, and spiritual centered. In this view, all existence is interconnected spiritually and has equal value. There is no dualistic concept and the world is in constant process of change. But the patriarchy of Confucianism and the human nature toward power have overshadowed Korean’s archaic worldview.[4]  As a result, Korean’s life has become contradictory to its worldview creating deep pain particularly who are located below. And overemphasis on its worldview creates dysfunctional symptoms such as dependency, outside focused, victimizing oneself, shame based false self, family based self-centeredness. etc.,[5]

Therefore, before we proceed to discuss the application and benefits of Satir’s therapy model in Korea, it is important to review the STST and Korean worldview and its traditional healing methodology.

II. Overview of the Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy

Compare to Satir’s contribution to the family therapy field, her therapy approach has not been fully appreciated by other pioneers because she emphasized the transformation through live demonstration rather than building a theory.  Instead of building a theory, she focused here and now transformation through experience and elaborately constructing vehicles for fundamental transformation. Even though her approach is creative, she seemed to be influenced by her epoch.  She emphasized on person, change, essence of life and her approach is in line with systemic theory, existentialism, phenomenology, humanism, constructivism, and Eastern thoughts including I Ching. Also her methodology shares insight from Jung’s depth psychology, attachment theory, object-relation therapy even psychoanalysis. She includes any method such as hypnotherapy, meditation. etc., whichever enhances human being’s well-being.[6]

A. Satir’s  systemic worldview[7]

  Satir says often how she came to see a family instead of a person from her clinical experience. From the experience she built a family therapy employing systemic theory. She saw a person, a family, a society, the world, and the universe as a system. She uses an iceberg metaphor to explain the complexity of human being’s internal experiences; behavior, feelings, feeling about feelings, perceptions, expectations, yearnings and self. These components are neither separated nor linear, but interacting systemically.

  She also explains the interaction systemically. The congruent relationship is, respecting I, you, and the context. It is a system and interacts as a whole. Her emphasis on human being and relationship is well lined with Buber’s philosophy.[8] Buber focused on central values of person as distinguished from things and the dialogue between I and Thou. In this stance, I present to you as an existential human being with same value. This requires full awareness here and now.  Otherwise, the relationship becomes I and It relationship. The other person becomes the object, not a person. [9] And this relationship also applies to me.  If I do not respect me, I and me relationship become I and It relationship. The essence of I and Thou relationship presupposes the essence, The essence is the life essence, life energy, creative ground of the divine life. The Essence, we may call God, is not out there, but permeated in every existence and in the Universe. Satir saw human being as a spiritual being in human form and as divine and our origins, and connected to the universe. And the spirituality is basic to our existence, and healing is to reconnect to our own spirituality and to the spirituality of the Universe. This spirituality, the life force can be called in many names but same in its essence.[10]

 For Satir, a human being is a system, and the relationship is a system, and the whole world and Universe is a system connected through life force.   

B. Therapy

  Satir views human being’s life force as a seed which contains the potentiality to become a full human being. This potentiality is intrinsically good, and positively directional. Satir, influenced by Tao, understand the world as process. In Yin and Yang, differences are only different manifestation of one essence. In yan, yin is. In yin, yang is. The word distinction is conditional and existential, not essential. The alternation of contraction and expansion produces progression. This is continuous process, which creates another state. Thus, what is most important is change itself. Change produces creativity, and change is changeless in its creativity.[11] Satir understand the world as a process, so that the therapy is to promote the positively directional process for the person to become a fully actualized congruent person.

  While traditional psychotherapy lost its possibility to see the client from a point of family systemic view, most family system therapy shunned emotional part in human being. Family therapy which was emerged from reacting to traditional psychotherapy, actively seeks to find the structure, pattern, interaction, and the system of the family. Unlike other theorist, Satir never lost the importance of the emotion in a person and its human system, the family. However, because of her emphasis on emotion, she was not respected in her time from her colleagues as much as she should get. However, she intuitively knew how much the early childhood painful emotion impacts one’s life and consumes up the life energy. Recent researches on brain and body, clearly show how the early childhood experience stored in brain and body in a total form. This memory reacts to the triggering events so that one reacts to the new event with old coping pattern. Unless one resolves these unfinished issues experientially, one cannot but react to the event because emotion and body cannot tell the difference of new event from the early threatening events. Thus, transformation in deep level occurs through emotion and body experience. So, STST focuses on emotional healing as well as systemic healing through experiencing.

  A child constructs his or her reality according to the experiences, a therapy has to deal with his or her subjective reality. Satir influenced by phenomenology focuses on here and now subjective reality. Through experience, one can transform one’s subjective reality by deconstruction of the old picture to reconstruction. In this sense, STST covers from psychoanalytical ideas to postmodern family therapy such as Narrative therapy.

 Therapy in STST is not just fixing people’s problem as Satir says in her famous book “New Peoplemaking”, it is like clearing the blocking things in the river so that river can flow freely to the ocean. It is unblocking the life energy to flow freely so that one can be oneself or himself with the Greater Self, the Universal Essence, the Spirit.

C. Meta-Goals as a ultimate therapy goal

  After meeting so many suffering families, Satir concluded that those suffering families had common characteristics. All of them had low self-esteem, incongruent communication pattern, self limiting rules, and very low repertoire of the choices, and depend on others for one’s life.[12]         

  Thus, whatever the individual or family’s therapeutic goal might be, Satir believed that the therapy should aim for meta-goals. Influenced by existentialism and humanism, Satir stipulated every therapy should achieve the meta-goals; raising the self-esteem of the client, helping clients to be their own choice maker, helping clients to be more responsible, and helping clients become more congruent.[13]

    Self-esteem is how the person experiences oneself, the iceberg, holistically. A person who experiences oneself with high self-esteem can respond to the world from the level of self instead of reacting from a part of iceberg. A person with high self-esteem can live harmoniously with self, others, and the world connecting to the Spirit of the universe

  When a person makes one’s decision freely instead of depending on others, one lives one’s life vividly with full awareness. Full awareness leads one to be responsible for one’s inner world, and responsible for one’s decision and life. There would be no discrepancy between inside and outside. Satir names this state of being as being congruent. Satir believes that every human being can fully actualize one’s potentiality as a congruent self.

  Satir transformed family magically, but her model presupposes the individual healing beforehand. As “Satir Model-beyond Family Therapy” book title says, Satir’s family therapy is for individual therapy since individual makes the family. Unless one is responsible for one’s own life, family system cannot function in a healthy way. Also, when a family is not function well, individual cannot function well, either.

D. Therapist as a Tool for Healing[14]

  Many therapy schools emphasize the ethics and the maturity of the therapists, but Satir advocates the necessity of therapist’s congruency foremost. Satir sets up the training program to help therapist to be effective as a healer. Unless therapist in the process of being congruent, therapist cannot help client to become congruent.  Only when therapist can live in the level of self connecting to the life energy can empower the client to be in contact with one’s own life energy. Congruence for the therapist is congruent within self, congruent to the client in attitude, and congruent in relationship between therapist and the client. To meet the client and enter the client’s inner world is awesome experience. Being with a client is an encounter of person and person, and therapy is taking a journey with the client walking together through his life which is full of sacred experiences

  Satir advocates therapist should meet the client as an equal status as a person, but not as  equal as a therapist and a client.  Satir asked that therapist be responsible for client’s effective healing. Thus, therapist needs to be congruent and effective healer in charge of healing process. Later, Satir developed Mandala for therapist’s self care. Satir asks therapist to be congruent, skillful, and a role model as a congruent being. So therapist needs to be in the process of transformation and learning.

III. Korean Worldview

A. Shamanism

Every culture has historically transmitted its patterns of social and psychological reality, including a belief system. The distinctive characteriscs of cultural patterns are shaped through the process of dialectical interaction. People shape their own characters to a culture and shape culture to their characters.[15] Korean worldview is rooted in Shamanism which asserts that the world is connected through a life force. Shamanism is not so much a structured religion as it is a spiritual dynamic force, élan vital (Turner, 1969). A Shamanistic worldview perceives the universe as one life form - a large, complex and an integrated system that consists of many living organisms and nonliving matters.  Sharing dynamic life energy, these organisms are inevitably interrelated, interdependent and ever-changing.  In short, the Korean worldview was founded on the Shamanistic philosophy of systemic connectedness.

“Han”

An important manifestation of the Korean’s Shamanistic worldview is in the concept of “Han”, which is deeply embedded in the Korean spirituality and which influences the Koreans’ life style, language and philosophy.  The word “Han” carries multiple meanings and can be used as a noun, adjective, adverb, suffix or prefix. The word for God in the Korean language is “Hanunim”, which can be directly taken to mean absolute or perfection.  Han denotes one, as well as, many.  It indicates a part of the sum, as well as, totality of all parts.  Therefore, Han as a concept, is inclusive and nonorientable, in which “one as one and one as many are identical.” (Sang-Yil Kim, 1984)  It does not recognize boundaries or separations, as opposed to the Western notion of dualism and individualism. 

As a spirituality, Han represents the absolute universal life energy that transcends all living existences in the world (God).  At the same time, Han is also the very the life force that is present in every living being in the universe, connecting them as one.  Han is a unique Korean spirituality that emphasizes equality, interconnectedness and interdependencies of all living existences in the world.  A break in these connections would create problems and result in deep emotional pain. To maintain a harmonious relationship, it is imperative that a person respects God, oneself, other human beings and all other living existence equally.  Even life and death are viewed as inseparable and inextricably connected in the one universal energy.  Death is but the beginning of another life, which is why Koreans practice ancestor worship.   

  Confucianism

While Shamanism formed the basis of Korean worldview and spirituality, it is the Confucian school of thought that underlies the Korean political ideology, value system and social structure.  The relevance and impacts of some Confucian elements are apparent as we observe Korea’s hierarchical social and family structure, as well as, its heavy emphasis on continuous learning (Young Ae Kim, 1991). 

Patriarchal Structure. A male-dominated and hierarchical structure introduced inequality into the Korean society, in stark contrast to the Shamanistic value of equality and connectedness.  Within this structure, the male elders hold the highest authority and command the utmost respect from the female and younger members of the community.  In a family setting, for instance, children are expected to obey their parents’ will unconditionally.  Male dominance can also be easily observed. In organizational settings, most senior positions are held my men.  Women often find it exceedingly difficult to climb up the organizational ladders.     

Education and Learning. During the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910 A.D), the last royal dynasty, Korea’s political ideology was based on Confucian ethics.  At the time, one had to pass examinations to be accepted into the ruling party.  In order to pass these examinations, one would need to be extremely well-educated and well-versed in the Confucian teachings.  Even today, the high value placed on education is reflected in the Korean society where the pressure to be learned and academically successful is apparent.  Ask any Korean parents and they will tell you that their main priority is their children’s education.  They dedicate much of their energy and time to educating their children and making sure that their children receive the best education from the best schools.     

C. Implications of Shamanism and Confucianism in Korea

Over time, contradicting elements of Shamanism and Confucianism were intricately and inextricably woven into the tapestry of Korean lives, creating a unique and challenging society in which to live.  The absence of separation and boundaries of Han largely defines the nature of human relationships in the Korean society, in which “we” always take precedence over “I”.  Thus, Koreans find themselves trapped in relationships that too often result in the loss of their individuality and independence, breeding weak psychological boundaries, dependence and conformity.   

Individual’s authenticity is often suppressed because being different is viewed as a flaw and a cause for isolation.  Driven by fear of isolation and the need for group acceptance, the Koreans are forced to conform to the group’s norm and adopt the group’s identity.  People become more preoccupied with their surrounding and more oblivious to their inner selves.  Compelled to place a greater emphasis on external appearance and superficiality, they rarely attend to their own personal growth.  This creates a gap between the inner and the outer self, resulting in the incongruent self and possibly, the loss of oneself.  Furthermore, such extreme preoccupation with group’s well-being leads to over-protectiveness of one’s group.  Specifically, Koreans become so protective of their own families that they confine themselves within rigid barriers, alienating other families.[16]

On top of this, Koreans have to contend with patriarchal social and family structures, which are footprints of Confucianism. This breaks the sense of equality between people, further adding to the emotional conflicts that the Korean individuals have to go through.  Women and children, who are often perceived as inferior, are especially vulnerable victims. 

In family settings, children are fully expected to obey their parents.  Because of the Koreans’ weak psychological boundaries, parents can easily impose their will on their children.  Also, since the children’s conducts reflect their parents’ upbringing, they are expected to act in ways to uphold their family pride.  Their own needs and fulfillments are often forgone for fear of humiliating their families. Just as guilt is the main negative emotion in the West, fear of humiliation is deeply rooted in the Koreans’ psyche.

All these internalized pains borne by the Koreans can be encapsulated in one word - “haan”.  Haan, an ethos of the Korean people, is the seed that grows into anxiety, frustration, rage, shame, self-hatred, loss of self-worth, despair and powerlessness, among other things.[17]

Heavily burdened with their emotional struggles, Koreans are unfortunately deprived of a healthy outlet to release them.  This is because Koreans have been conditioned to repress their thoughts and emotions to avoid confrontations in the society.  As a general rule, the Korean culture frowns upon open communication.  Even mere expression of one’s happiness is viewed as an impolite and arrogant gesture.  Koreans believe that nothing is permanent, just like the ebb and flow of the waves.  Good times are easily followed by bad times, so, it is better not to express one’s emotions openly.

D. Healers in the Korean Traditional Society[18]

Traditionally, to help them cope with their haan, Koreans would seek the help of shamans.  A role undertaken mostly by women, shamans had experienced severe haan and had sacrificed everything to recover their original selves. They were believed to have undergone an arduous process of spiritual rebirth and as a result, gained tremendous spiritual powers and healing powers.  As healers, these female shamans were also viewed as medicine women, priests, fortune tellers and even skillful artists. 

A shaman would usually begin the healing process by holding consultation with the subject and the subject’s family regarding the problems that they are facing. Generally empathetic, a shaman usually listens carefully to the subject’s stories.  As the subject and the subject’s family express their problems freely with the shaman, they feel parts of their haan being released. The shaman then proceeds to diagnose the problems and usually attributes them to occurrences in the spirit world, such as, ancestors’ ill-will.  The solution, therefore, is to restore good will with the spirit world and with God.  It is important to note at this point that problems are often attributed to the spirit world and to God.  As such, Koreans depend on external factors for explanations of their problems, as well as, rely heavily on external factors for solutions.  As the final step, the shaman would initiate mediation with the spirit world through a ritual. With the connection to their ancestors and their God restored, the subject and the subject’s family are assured that healing has taken place. Also, there are various rituals for the dead (survivors), trauma, psychological symptoms, and physical symptoms.

To be effective priest and healer, shaman has to learn and perform the ritual very carefully and spiritually powerful.

III. APPLICATION OF SATIR TRANSFORMATIONAL SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN TODAY’S KOREAN SOCIETY

So far, we have explored some cornerstones and characteristics of the Korean culture which have hopefully afforded you a quick glance at the Korean perspectives and ways of lives.  Today, Korea, just like other advanced nations, is faced with many complex social issues as its traditional family structure undergoes significant changes.                                         

Korea is witnessing increasing divorce rates and a growing number of single families.  Modern couples do not always want to have children, and if they do, they rarely have more than two children.  In the past, children were expected to look after their aging parents but nowadays, children no longer want to undertake this responsibility.  As the society grapples with these changes, there is an even greater urgency now to heal the Koreans’ haan, rebuild the connection between people and contribute to the society’s well-being.

Even before Satir model was introduced in Korea, the concept of healing through therapy was not exactly new to the Koreans.  However, it was not exactly a widely accepted practice.  People, particularly men, were skeptical and embarrassed to solicit help outside their families to resolve family problems.  In their minds, it would only highlight their failures in fulfilling their responsibilities as the heads of their households.    However, Satir model quickly garnered wide acceptance and excitement in the Korean community because of its relevance and its effectiveness. 

The efficacy of Satir’s model in Korea can be attributed to many factors.  There are similarities between the model and the Korean culture that other Western therapy models do not possess.  These similarities formed the gateways to Korean society acceptance of Satir growth model.  Even if the model had originated miles away from the Korean soil, its underlying philosophy feels familiar to the Koreans.  More importantly, the model facilitates the Korean society’s growth  by helping the Korean individuals find the freedom to be who they really are, to live the lifestyles of their choice and to become congruent beings with high self-esteem, all while maintaining their relationships with others in the community.  Ultimately, with the help of Satir growth model, Koreans are once again able to connect with the spirituality of Han, the life energy within them and the universal life force. 

In the following, we will examine the relevance of Satir model to the Korean society and the concrete opportunities it presents to Koreans in overcoming the limitations of its culture to realize its full potential.

A. Systemic View of Universal Interconnectedness

It is not too difficult to find common grounds between Satir’s therapy approach and the Korean worldview.  The very heart of the Korean worldview, as we discussed, is the spirituality of Han, the belief in universal interconnectedness and equality.  Problems occur when connections are broken.  Likewise, Satir embraced the philosophy that the individuals, the family and the society are invariably connected in one universal life force. She observed that when breaks in this relationship occur, dysfunctional symptoms present themselves in a person’s mental, physical and spiritual conditions.  Her therapy approach is aimed at restoring these connections, making it extremely relevant to the Korean people. 

Also consistent with the Korean spirituality of Han, Satir understood that life energy does not cease with death.  Satir’s therapy approach recognizes that people can only live their lives fully when they accept that life and death are inseparable.  Many Koreans, who, until today, still partake in ancestor worship, find comfort knowing that Satir shared in the same spiritual essence.

B. Reconnecting with Oneself

One aspect of the model that is particularly relevant to the Koreans is its emphasis and preservation of the self while maintaining connectedness.  Even though Satir model is deeply rooted in a systemic view like other family therapy models, it is distinct in the way that it specifically targets individual transformation.     

Satir believed that each person has the capacity to be a healthy, congruent being, with the ability to grow throughout his or her lifetime.  This is a call to the Korean people to stop attributing problems to external factors, such as, conflicts in the spiritual world or God’s wrath, and to start looking inward.  Healing can only begin when one is willing to take responsibility for one’s life.  To this end, Satir’s approach provides the necessary tool for the Koreans to assess their lives and empowers them to take steps to resolve their problems.     

Where individualities are often lost in the midst of group identity, Satir’s iceberg metaphor can help Koreans regain their authentic selves and get in touch with their inner selves.  As the individuals explore each layer of the iceberg model, they are compelled to scrutinize different facets of themselves - feelings, expectations and perceptions.  Instead of focusing on the superficial and scrambling to gain others approvals, they are forced to explore deep inside themselves and understand how they can fulfill their own needs and expectations. This exercise brings about self awareness at such a depth that it inevitably promotes life-changing transformations and congruency in the individuals, hence allowing these individuals to reengage in the positive universal life energy within them. 

In this process of reconnecting with oneself, the individuals also discover their authentic selves and learn to appreciate their unique qualities.  Satir model encourages them to nurture and to maintain their individualities, even as they build relationship with others.  Only when each individual maintains a strong sense of self worth and independence can he/she effectively form healthy relationships and lead a fulfilling life in a positive direction. 

C. Reconnecting with Others

Connecting with oneself is especially crucial because it further allows for developing healthy kinship with others.  As Satir pointed out, no human being can exist alone.  A person is inevitably influenced by others around him or her and vice versa.  Therefore, to fully restore an individual’s congruency, he or she must also be able to form healthy and harmonious relationship with others. The key to healthy relationships is effective communication.  Satir viewed communication as an expression of one’s existential mode and relational pattern.  In Korea where self-expression is often discouraged, Satir model can help these individuals develop congruent communication abilities.

As mentioned previously, group orientation in Korea often results in rigid boundaries among people who belong to different groups/families. In this regard, Satir model helps to educate the Korean people that they need to build harmonious relationship with everyone, not just with those who belong to their immediate group.  This encourages the Koreans need to reach out to those beyond their immediate groups and families, regardless of differences. 

D. Reconnecting with Universal Life Energy

At the end of the day, by restoring people’s connection with themselves, their society and their families, the Satir model effectively reunites people with their own life energy and the universal life force.  Realizing the influence they have over their own lives and in the lives of others, people become aware of the positive life energy that they possess.  A strong reminder to the Koreans that everything in this universe is inevitably connected, Satir model is powerful in instilling compassion, love and congruence in human beings, which are crucial ingredients for a healthy society.   

E. Experiential and Inclusive Approaches

Rituals take the center stage in shamans’ healing process, providing an opportunity for the subjects to engage in resolving their haan experientially.  For instance, when a member of a family passes away, rituals are usually held to help the family cope with their grief.  The rituals depict the shamans’ great artistic, theatrical and healing skills.  Elaborately carried out, they include dance routines and theatrical performances accompanied by various musical instruments, not unlike those in musical dramas.  The shaman usually plays the part of the departed family member and reaches out to the grieving family members to help them cope with their sorrows.  This affords the family an opportunity to deal with any repressed emotions or unresolved issues they may have with their departed family member, such as, asking for forgiveness and expressing their love.  At the end of the ritual, the shaman breaks a long, white piece of linen in two pieces to symbolize that the departed family member and the surviving family members belong to two different worlds, providing a closure for the surviving family members.  Rituals such as this greatly help families in accepting the death of their loved ones and in continuing with their lives.  As such, these rituals very much take the form of grief/loss therapy, survivors’ therapy and most importantly, family therapy. 

Satir therapists do not simply engage their subjects in normal conversations during counseling sessions.  They employ bodily movements, music, meditations, metaphors, symbols and images that enable the subjects to re-engage in early emotional experiences, some of which may be buried in their subconscious.  Satir was convinced that a person’s life experience begins the moment he/she is conceived in the womb.  Indeed, recent studies of the human brain have shown that people can recall their experiences in their mothers’ wombs.  For effectual healings to take place, therefore, subjects have to re-experience their painful experiences holistically, even those that might have occurred when they were still in their mothers’ wombs.

F. Emotional Healing

In the context of family relationship, a great deal of pain or haan is created because of its patriarchal nature.  Korean women and children, who are regarded as inferior in their society, are especially deprived of the privilege to express themselves. In order to fully heal the Korean people, it is very important to heal their haan.  This is where Satir model, which focuses on resolving emotional conflicts, is especially relevant to the Korean women who feel so much deep pain, haan. 

Based on Satir’s extensive family counseling experiences, she came to the conclusion that, for the most part, parents try their best to help their children survive in this world.  However, without realizing it, parents often inflict pains on their children.  Particularly geared towards helping people resolve their relationships with their parents, Satir’s approach allows individuals to identify and examine the negative experiences they encounter early in their lives that have caused them so much sorrow.  Going through these exercises can assist individuals in overcoming their parents’ shortcomings and parenting flaws.  After all, no one is perfect, not even their parents who hold ultimate authority in the family hierarchy.  Only when these children realize that they are the products of their own decisions and actions, can they rise above any negative influences of their parents and learn to accept their parents. 

G. Therapy and the Use of Self in Healing

Satir defined therapy as the encounter between the therapist’s self and the subject’s self.  Thus, it is only natural that Satir growth model demands that the therapists be spiritually well-grounded, congruent in their lives, or at least be in the process of becoming congruent(Virginia Satir, 2000) Otherwise, they will not be able to provide the appropriate guidance to their clients.  The efficacy of Satir model greatly depends on this stringent requirement. 

Koreans, as discussed, were accustomed to seeking the help of shamans in healing their haan.  As you can imagine, shamans’ healing rituals are tremendously different from counseling sessions held by therapists.  However, there are elements of Satir therapy approach that are surprisingly similar to shamans’ practices, making it less foreign and intimidating for the Koreans.[19]  One example is that shamans’ rituals involve their subjects’ family to heal their subject’s haan.  Likewise, Satir’s approach requires their clients’ family members’ participation to enable healing for their clients.   

Through rituals, shamans exert great influence over their subjects and convince them of healing.  Similarly, Satir’s therapists have to be able to influence their subjects positively and help direct them in their journey towards healing.  Many modern therapists argue that therapists should remain objective and not try to influence their subjects.  Satir believed that this is not quite possible because when two lives are contact with one another, they inevitably influence one another.  As Satir aptly put it in the video work on family reconstruction, “When I am completely harmonious with myself, it is like one light reaching out to another.  At the outset of a psychotherapy session, it is not a question or ‘I will help you.’  It is simply a question of life reaching out to life.”

H. Continuous Learning Experience

As we discussed previously, the Korean mindset places heavy emphasis on education and the Satir growth model is one that enables continuous learning.  Satir asserted in New Peoplemaking that therapy includes learning as a part of therapy.  Satir model is a constant learning process for the subjects as it goes beyond just healing the immediate problem.  It actually encourages the subjects to immerse in experiential learning so that they continue to grow throughout their lifetime. 

For the therapists, counseling sessions are learning opportunities as they have to constantly investigate underlying issues with families and individuals, and seek to provide their subjects with the most appropriate guidance. After all, Satir therapists are fully expected to suggest alternative life styles to their subjects and not simply wait passively for the clients to arrive at that point on their own.  In this regard, Satir model appeals to the Koreans’ need for continuous education and learning.

IV. CONCLUSION

Five years after it was first introduced in Korea, Satir’s therapy model is still continuing to penetrate the Korean society, gathering further acceptance and recognition for its efficacy in Korea. 

The majority of those who have experienced the model’s effectiveness have also actively participated in Satir’s therapy training in the hope of becoming therapists themselves.  Just as they have rediscovered the universal life energy within them, they are looking forward to helping rekindle it in others.  Slowly but steadily, we are seeing the wonderful ripple effects of these individuals’ positive transformations. 

There have been more than 1000 persons who attended the Satir Transformational Systemic Training program, among them, 114 person completed 2 1/2 years program. And this program becomes the graduate program joint with social welfare department. Also, there have been almost 1500 persons who attended Satir Transformational Systemic Communication Skills Training program and Satir Transformational Systemic Parenting Skills Training program both developed by Young Ae Kim. There are more than 100 persons who become instructor in these two programs.

Every culture is unique in its own way and unavoidably, every culture presents certain limitations to its people.  Despite her western origin, Virginia Satir’s knowledge of humanity and her dedication to helping humanity makes her therapy model accessible and effective across different cultural barriers.  In Korea, her model not only helps people resolve their conflicts and restore their congruency, but it actually helps them to reengage in their own unique spirituality of Han.  Most of all, in this hectic, modern society where people are struggling with many new challenges, Satir model is a powerful reminder that a community is incomplete and paralyzed without spirituality, love and compassion. 

References:
Banmen, John, ed., Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy, CA: Science and Behavior, 2006. forthcoming.
Banmen, John, ed., Application of the Satir Growth Model, CA: Avanta the Virginia Satir Network, 2006.
Satir, V. Peoplemaking. CA: Science and Behavior. 1972a.
______. Self-esteem. CA:Celestial Arts, 1975
______. Newpeoplemaking. CA: Science and Behavior. 1988a
Satir, V., Baldwin, M. Satir Step by Step. CA: Science and Behavior. 1983
________________. (Eds.) The Use of Self in Therapy. NY: Haworth Press, 1987.
Suhd, M., Dodson, L., Gomori, M eds., Virginia Satir-Her Life and Circle of Influence. CA: Science and Behavior. 2000
Satir, V., Banmen, J., Gerber, J. & Gomori, M. The Satir Model-Family Therapy and Beyond. CA: Science & Behavior Books. 1991.
General References:
DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Association, 1994
Bellah, Robert N., et at. Habits of the Heart. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Cho, Heung Yun. Korean Shaman. Seoul: Jing Um Sa, 1986.
Cho, Oh-Kon. “Pungsan Talchum.” Traditional Korean Theater. Ed. And trans. Oh-Kon Cho. Berkeley: Asain Humanities Press, 1988.
Choi, Jai Seok. Hankook Kajok Jaedosa Yunkoo[A study on the history of Korean family structure]. Seoul: Iljisa, 1983.
Choi, Kil sung. Ancestor Worship in Korea. Seoul: Yae Jin, 1986.
______________. Hankook Musokeui Yunkoo [The Study on Korean Shamanism]. Seoul: Asea Munhwasa, 1978.
Covell, Alan Carter. Ecstacy: Shamanism in Korea. Seoul: Hollym International, 1983.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic, 1973.
Hahm, Pyong-Choon. “Shamanism and the Korean Worldview.” Shamanism: The Spirit World of Korea. Eds. Cja-Sin Yu and Richard Guisso. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1988.
Kang, Hyun-joo. “Community and Community Ritual: A Study on Ture Kut.” Minjokkwa Kut[People and exorcism]. Ed. Minjok Kut Society. Seoul: Hakminsa, 1987.
Kendall, Laurel. Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual Life. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.
Kim, Inhoe. “Korean Shamanism: A Bibliographical Introduction.” Shamanism: The Sprit World of Korea. Eds. Chai-Sin Yu and Richard Guisso. Berkely: Asian Humanities Press, 1988.
____________, ed. A Study on Korean Shamanism. Seoul: Koryo University Press, 1982.
Kim, Kwang-il. “Kut and the Treatment of Mental Disorder.” Shamanism: The Spirit World of Korea. Eds. Chai-Sin Yu and Richard Guisso. Berkely: Asian Humanities Press, 1988.
Kim, Sang Il. “What is Hanism?” Hanims as Korean Mind. Eds. Sang Il Kim and Young Chan Ro. Los Angeles: Eastern Academy of Human Sciences, 1984.
Kim, Taegon. The Study on Korean Shamanism. Seoul. Jipmundang, 1981.
Kim, Yul Kyu. Hankookin, Kumaumui Kunwonul Chanunda[The Korean: Search for the root of mind]. Seoul: Pan Korean Book Corp. 1978.
______________. “Korean Shamanism and Folk Customs.” A Study on Korean Shamanism. Ed. Inhoe Kim. Seoul: Koryo University Press, 1982.
Kim, Young Ae. Han: From Brokenness to Wholeness-A Theoretical Analysis of Korean Women’s Han and a Contextualized Healing Methodology. Ph. D.  Dissertation. 1991. Claremont Theological Seminary(CA).
Lee, Jung Young, The Theology of Change.  New York: Orbis, Maryknoll, 1979.
Lee, Kwang Kyu.  A Structural Analysis of Korean Family. Seoul: Iljisa, 1975.
Lee, Kyu Tae. Korean People’s Haan. Seoul: Saejong, 1980.
_____________. The Personality Structure of Korean People. Seoul: Sinwon, 1983.
Moon, Soon Tae. “What is haan?” The Story of Haan. Ed. Kwangsun Suh. Seoul: Bori, 1988.
Ryu, Tong shik. Structure and history of Korean Shamanism. Seoul: Yunsei University Press, 1986.
________________, “The Religious of Korean and the Personality of Koreans.” Minsok Chongkyowa Hankookmunwha[Traditional religion and Korean culture] Seoul: Hundai Sasangsa, 1978.
Kelly, William L. Reading in the Philosophy of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill Book, 1972.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[1] . John Banmen, ed., Application of the Satir Growth Model,  Jerry Konecki, The Satir Model Universality and Cross-Cultural Applicability, p. 1..

[2] . Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Culture, p. 93.

[3] . Virginia Satir, et., The Satir Model-Family Therapy and Beyond, p. 1.

[4] . Young Ae Kim, Han: From Brokenness to Wholeness, Ph. D. dissertation, Claremont Theological Seminary, p. 37.

[5] . Ibid., p. 87.

[6] . Laura Dodson, Dreams Unfold a Life, Virginia Satir-Her Life and Circle of Influence., Melvin M. Suhd, eds, p. 111-2

[7] . John Banmen, ed., Satir Transformation Systemic Therapy, p. 8-18.

[8] . Michele Baldwin, ed., The Use of Self in Therapy, DeWiitt C. Baldwin Jr., Some Philosophical and Psychological Contributions to the Use of Self in Therapy,  P. 46-9.

[9] .William L. Kelly, Ph. D. ed., Reading in the Philosophy of Man, p. 136.

[10] . Bonnie K. Lee, Congruence in Satir’s  Model: Its Spiritual and Religious Significance,  John Banmen, ed., Satir Transformation Systemic Therapy, p. 59.

[11] . Jung Young Lee , The Theology of Change, p. 41.  Orbis, 1979, 

[12] . Satir, New Peoplemaking, p. 5.

[13] . John Banmen., ed.,  Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy, p. 55.

[14] . Michele Baldwin., ed., The Use of Self In Therapy, The Therapist Story by Virginia Satir, p. 17.

[15] . Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures, p. 93.

[16] . Young Ae Kim, Ph. D. Dissertation, p. 87.

[17] . Ibid., p. 10.

[18] . Ibid., 209.

[19] . Michele, The Use of Self, Judith F. Bula, Differenential Use of  Self by Therapists Following Their Own Trauma Experiences, p. 213.